Category Archives: Typography

Abstract Grid Composition

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| Ten Compositions Layered and Stacked

14_UWS_GD310_PRO3PT1_Hierarchy-grid_550pi

| Ten Compositions Sequential Display


Project Three — Part One
Abstract Grid Composition: Hierarchy Study

Description:
Create a series of compositions with placeholder text. Use the grid to determine the potential placement of a graphic/image and  text. Create dynamically divergent compositions. Use any type variety within the Univers family. Use size and scale change to your advantage.

Project Requirements:
Each series of compositions will start with a 10″ x 10″ composition in InDesign. Each set of compositions will exclusively use the type family LT–Adobe Univers (provided on R2•D2)

You must also specify type, which appears to represent three (3) layers of typographic hierarchy. Use placeholder text unless you wish to add “content” to a large display type where you copy edit your own text.

GRID COMPOSITION

Objectives:

  • Examine the diversity and versatility of a series of  grid structures
  • Consider the totality of the composition when text and image are aligned to a grid
  • Using false, or placeholder texts, create and examine subtle hierarchy possibilities in relation to three (3) congruent levels of text
  • Keep the designs and compositional concepts simple
  • Look at the possible compositions of text and image
  • Create a single PDF file with a full collection of your ten (10) compositions

See the attached PDF files of ten (10) sample compositions.
Each uses:

  • Univers Type Family
  • Conventional typographic alignments [left, right, centered]
  • Each has three (3) layers of typographic hierarchy
  • 50% (grey/black) stand-in for images
  • “Fill with placeholder text” – each composition and paragraph sample uses a different fill
  • Several equally divided grids; 7×7, 9×9, 12×12 of columns and rows
  • Do not save with ‘visible guides’ turn on; samples show how each is organized

Sample Files: Ten Compositions [PDF]

Project Three: Part One – without ‘visble guides + grids’
Project Three: Hierarchy Grid – with ‘visible guides’

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Point Size and Leading Comparison

Bauer Bodoni, Helvetica Bold, and Adobe Garamond Pro

Meredith-Davis_GD-theory_pg94

Bauer Bodoni Regular

This text is set in 10/12 point and the headline in 24 point Bauer Bodoni Regular. Because the typeface has a small x–height (the height of lowercase letters in relation to capital letters) and beacause the thick and thins in the stroke of the letters, its visual impression is one of delicate text surrounded by generous white space. Therefore, it requires less additional space between lines of type for comfortable reading than ther Helvetica Bold setting to the pragraph to the right.

Helvetica Bold

This text is set in 10/12 point and the headline is set in 24 point Helvetica Bold. Because the typeface has a large x–height and because of its bold strokes in relation to the enclosed white space, its visual impression is one of sturdy text surrounded by little white space. Helvetica, therefore, requires more additional space between lines of type for comfortable reading than the Buaer Bodoni Regular setting in the paragraph to the left.

When the linespacing is increased and the point size is reduced, as in this 9/13 point paragraph, the legibility of the typeface for reading large amounts of text improves. And because Helvetica has a large x–height, it can be set at sizes smaller than Bodoni and be equally readable. For these reasons, it is difficult to use a single set of rules for the legibility of type.

Adobe Garamond Pro

This text is set in 10/12 point and the headline in 24 point Adobe Garamond Pro. Because the typeface has a smaller x–height than both Bauer Bodoni Regular and Helvetica Bold. Because the thick and thin angled strokes of the letters, its visual impression is one of delicate text surrounded by generous white space. Therefore, it too requires less additional space between lines of type for comfortable reading than the Buaer Bodoni and Helvetica Bold paragraphs to the left.

When the linespacing is increased and the point size is reduced, as in this 9/13 point paragraph, the legibility of the typeface for reading large amounts of text becomes strained. Additional designs, unique to the Garamond type letterforms, allow for its familar and even color when set in a paragraph.

When the linespacing is further increased and the point size is reduced again, as in this 8/14 point paragraph, the legibility of the typeface for reading large amounts of text visually feels light and airy. The diminished point size and open line spacing is fragile and delicate, therfore, setting large amounts of text would strain the readers eyes, ultimately comprimising legibility and reducing its readability. For this reason it is unwise to use such a delicate serif typeface for online usage.

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Type Samples—
Each Headline isset at 24 point and first paragraph body copy at 12 point. Because the serif Bodoni has a much smaller x-height (the height of the lowercase letters) in comparison to the general proportions of the sans-serif Helvetica, it requires less additional vertical space between lines of text to make it legible. It is wise to compare several typefaces, noticing the visual effects both size and leading have on the look and feel of set text. 
Helvetica Regular 7/9

Type sample and visual study have been taken from Graphic Design Theory by Meridith Davis

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Image

Context Contrast Contents

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Fall Semester Design Culture Now Samples

Fall 2013 Graphic Design One | UW –Stout

Project Five: Design Culture Now Poster

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“DESIGN CULTURE NOW”  — lettering was drawn and generated using Sketch Up. Exported into PSD and turned into greyscale > halftone bitmap files.
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FA13_design-culture-now_poster_01

Bodega Typeface created on an iPad using iFontMaker; exported as a True Type font format. Outlined type is then generated through the 3–D extrude & bevel, and rotate filters.
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SP13_design-culture-now_poster_03

Bodega Typeface created on an iPad using iFontMaker; exported as a True Type font format. Background uses a half tone image processed through Vectoraster.
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SP13_design-culture-now_poster_02

‘Design’–’Culture’–’Now’ uses type generated in Graffiti Generator. Individual type style, transparency, color, embellishments, and stroke were adjusted and manipulated to achieve the desired affects.
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SP13_design-culture-now_poster_01

Bodega Typeface created on an iPad using iFontMaker; exported as a True Type font format.
Hand drawn “DE•SIGN” and “Cooper – Hewitt…” hand-lettering was drawn and generated on an iPad using the Made With Paper — 53 iPad App.
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RESOURCES:
•    Lupton, Ellen. Design Culture Now: The National Design Triennial. Princeton Architectural Press.
•    DCN Publication
•    Ellen Lupton Essay
•    Cooper – Hewitt

Favorite sans serif

•••

Trying this new thing… Can’t wait to see the results.

Design Culture Now Digital Collage

Lesson: 3 Part One

Digital Collage
Visual Exercise

La Logotheque — VECTOR LIBRARY
www.logowik.com

Short brief lesson on digital collage  examining the creation and manipulation
of form, image generation, appropriation,  and digital collage.

Search, research, steal, “borrow,” from the web site and design resource La Logotheque or Logwik.com. Examine their vector library for corp. logos, sign, seals, flags, symbols.

  • Create one (1) digital collage consisting of no less than four (4) separate vector resources.
  • Present the collage on a printed (black & white or color) 8.5″ x 11″ sheet of paper.
  • DO NOT mount your designs.

Collages can be purely decorative, editorial, social commentary, or political.

There are no other restrictions but have FUN! So much of our studies this semester have been restrictive—this is not that. How elaborate can you make them, how personalized and creative can they be.

See original collage.

Design Culture Now Digital Collage

Lesson: 3 Part Two

Incorporate Digital Collage into DCN poster concept

SECONDLY
Create one (1) Design Culture Now poster design that utilizes and includes, in a conceptually driven manner, the digital mash-up collage (or another) This collage must drive the concept.

Think of  concept: specific color, edited collection, editorial, speculative, archive, critical, or self reflective. Can the viewer get a sense of your personal interpretation or witness your voice as a designer and maker.

Design Culture Now

Design Culture Now

Bodega Typeface created on an iPad using iFontMaker; exported as a True Type font format.

Hand drawn “DE•SIGN” and “Cooper – Hewitt…” hand-lettering was drawn and generated on an iPad using the Made With Paper — 53 iPad App.
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A Critical Academic Response

Many design professors and faculty have begun implementing a version of Ellen Lupton’s Design Culture Now poster assignment into GD1, GD2, or Typography classes across the globe. This overwhelming acceptance of this project has created a small online community. Almost a right of passage, a Google search for Design Culture Now Poster recalls hundreds of student posters. The collection is a small snapshot into the current need for design curriculum to adapt, change, and address contemporary design issues and technical attributes.

As a former graduate student of Ellen’s, I readily accept this project and have added it to my GD1 courses for the past several semesters. I have seen an assorted grouping of student designs; some excellent, and others that miss the essential guidelines and typographic criteria for which the project was created.

The National Design Triennial exhibition and catalog of the same name was once a speculative collection of cross-disciplinary designers and their designs in both theory, practice, and application. As indirect result has formed a large micro community of poster designs. These designs can illuminate current design trends, design education, and current events circulating the international design community.

Student designs vary greatly, from well developed visual design concepts, to poorly reactive, non-observant non articulated misaligned solutions. Seeing the larger community of DCN poster design I see my teaching notes are not unlike others. The uniqueness of this poster community allows distant observation for both the students and faculty. The diversity allows students to witness other attempts, used in a larger discussion can help make their own posters more articulate and considered. The DCN poster project is an ever specific, minute micro study, into current events of design history. The larger collection is acting like a time capsule for contemporary design education practice.

Project: 5
Text, image, hierarchy, impact

DCN POSTER DESIGN

Time to make a poster! Again, we turn to Ms. Lupton
(with some modifications):

Create a poster for a lecture series about contemporary design.

Carefully consider the typographic hierarchy of the information presented. A viewer should be able to easily understand the calendar of events and quickly learn who the main speakers are. The poster must also convey the excitement of contemporary design to an audience of designers and students. The information itself must constitute the “imagery” of the poster.

Your posters should show a significant rigorous study of potential typographic solutions. Think of the past projects leading up to this; how does hierarchy, type size and style, and the use of a grid organize information. What relationships can you create?

Details:

Size: 18” x 24”

  • Your poster must be type dominant. You may use colors, shapes, and lines as well as any supplemental text.
  • Any secondary imagery such as a collage, illustration or photograph must be created by you. No outside found/stolen/borrowed imagery may be used.
  • You must use a grid to organize your design. The grid is up to you. Consider how the number of columns and rows may organize and structure your content.

Ideation—first draft of designs. You must create three poster concepts. Present your three designs reduced to fit an 11” x 17” (including crop marks). Each of your three concepts must be printed, cut, and trimmed and prepared before class begins. Unfinished posters will not be accepted for critique.

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RESOURCES:

3x Articles Spread

Project Three Part Four

Subtle Hierarchy

DESCRIPTION:

The single most elementary and essential design tool is the grid; second only to the alphabet, and the words within it, the grid is the ultimate multi-purpose tool
that will offer the ability to organize and distribute content. A grid establishes rules, rhythm, repetition and informational patterning. You are tasked with identifying three separate articles of texts. What typographic similarities unify information? In the sample below, each article of text has a unique rhythm and texture to differentiate it from the others.

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS:

Each composition will start with a 10″ x 10″ composition in InDesign. Each set of compositions will exclusively use the type family LT–Adobe Univers (provided on R2•D2)

Create ten (10) compositions.

GD1_PRO3PT4_3xArticle_SpreadSample_4Sample: Facing-pages designed as ‘spreads’

Create page divisions with a series of both rows (h) and columns (v) of your choosing.

Document Setup

  1. Document Size: 10″ x 10″
  2. Facing pages; Number of pages–2
  3. Page margins of your choosing
  4. Create a number of guides dividing the page
  • Base the columns and rows according to page margins
  • Determine the number of rows and columns
  • Determine gutter width

Use the grid structure to produce and organize hierarchical compositions
between three articles provided on R2•D2

  • Hierarchy
  • Text: column width, paragraph length, leading,
    type size, variation
  • Title, author, sub-title, credits, footnotes,
    quotations
  • Column frequency, single, double, triple width

Study the double page spread and how the grid can unify and organize a series of related texts.

Create a PDF file with a full collection of your compositions.

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Resources:

Three Articles Text File: GD One 3x Articles Text

2x Article Page Composition

Project Three Part Three

Subtle Hierarchy

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS:

Each series of compositions will start with a 10″ x 10″ composition in InDesign.
Each set of compositions will exclusively use the type family LT–Adobe Univers (provided on R2•D2)

Create ten (10) Compositions.

DESCRIPTION:

Mathematical grids divide space and suggest placement of text. Page
divisions are used to group similar parts of information, or used
to create a visual contrast of organizational elements. Simple page
divisions can be used to suggest horizontal and vertical
similarities and alignments. Use spacial page divisions to align
and organize two articles of text. Each article has its various
parts that need to be identified with its body of text. Use subtle
variations to identify each grouping of information. GD1_PRO3PT02_2xArticle_CompSample-1 GD1_PRO3PT02_2xArticle_CompSample-2

Two article single composition example.

page criteria:

  1. Document Size: 10″ x 10″
  2. Non facing pages; Number of pages–1
  3. No page margins
  4. Create an equal number of guides dividing the
    page
  • Base the columns according to the page
  • Zero space for gutter
  • Equal divisions of columns and rows (of your choosing)(be inventive) For example: 1″ x 1″, 10 col /10 rows.; 5/5; 6/6; 20/20; 9/9, etc.
  • Use divisions to produce subtle hierarchy compositions
    between two articles of copy (See supplied text)
    •  Title
    •  Sub-title
    •  Author
    •  Article text
    •  Pull “quotes”

Create a PDF file with a full collection of your compositions.

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Text Resources

GD One Project Three 2x Articles Text  [File]
Notes: Use both Article One and Two (provided) for your single compositions

DesignObserver web log and visual archive.

Graphic Design The New Basics

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Hierarchy Studies

Project Three Part Two

Description:

Create a series of compositions with placeholder text. Use the grid
to determine the potential placement of a graphic/image and
text. Create dynamically divergent compositions. Use any type
variety within the Univers family. Use size and scale change to
your advantage.

Project Requirements:

  • Each series of compositions will start with a 10″ x 10″
    composition in InDesign.
  • Each set of compositions will exclusively use the type family LT–Adobe Univers
  • You must also specify type, which appears to represent three (3) layers of hierarchy.
  • Use placeholder text unless you wish to add “content” to
    a large display type where you copy edit your own text.
  • Page Division: seven (7) rows and seven (7) columns.
Create 1o compositions using the following page criteria:

Page/Document Requirements:

  • Document Size: 10″ x 10″
  • Non facing pages: ~
  • Number of pages: 10
  • Create an equal number of guides (H/V) dividing the page; 7/7, 6/6, 10/10 Start with 7 columns, 7 rows.
  • Base the columns and rows according to the page .125″ gutter.
  • NO page margins

Use modules to produce organizational hierarchy compositions between place holder text, set accordingly; box(s) indicating photo(s) placement {use a tinted boxes to indicate photo placement; 50% blue/grey} 13_GD1_PRO3P2_Composition_1 13_GD1_PRO3P2_Composition_2 13_GD1_PRO3P2_Composition_3 13_GD1_PRO3P2_Composition_4

Objectives:

  • Examine the diversity and versatility of a series of  grid structures
  • Examine subtle hierarchy possibilities in relation to three congruent sets of text
  • Look at the possible compositions of text and image, examine:
  • Size relationship
  • Contrast
  • Pattern
  • Texture
  • Single vs. multiple
  • Large vs. Small
  • Consider the totality of the composition when text and image are aligned to a grid

Create a PDF file with a full collection of your compositions

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Definitions

Grid — def.
A grid is a network of lines. It is a tool for generating form, arranging images, and organizing, information. The grid can work quietly in the background, or it can assert itself as an active element. The grid becomes visible as objects come into alignment with it. Some designers use grids in a strict, absolute way, while others see them as a starting point in an evolving process.

In the design of printed matter, guidelines help the designer align elements in relation to each other. Consistent margins and columns create an underlying structure that unifies a document and makes the layout process more efficient.
A well-made grid encourages the designer to vary the scale and placement of elements without relying wholly on arbitrary judgements. The grid offers a rationale and a starting point for each composition, converting a blank area into a structured field.

Grids are part of modern urbanism and architecture. The facades of many glass high rises and other modern buildings consist of uniform ribbons of metal and glass that wrap the building’s volume in a continuous skin. The street grids used in many modern cities around the globe promote circulation among neighborhoods and the flow of traffic, in contrast with the suburban cul-de-sac, a dead-end road that keeps neighborhoods closed off and private.
The grid imparts a similarly democratic character to the printed page. By making space into numerous equal units, the grid makes the entire page available for use; the edges become as important as the center. Grids help designers create active, asymmetrical compositions in place of static, centered ones. By breaking down space into smaller units, grids encourage designers to leave some areas open rather than filling up the whole page.

Hierarchy — def.
Hierarchy is the order of importance within a social group (such as the regiments of an army) or in a body of text (such as the sections and subsections of a book). Hierarchical order exists in nearly everything we know, including the family unit, the workplace, politics, and religion. Indeed, the ranking of order defines who we are as a culture.

Hierarchy is expressed through naming systems: general, colonel, corporal, private, and so on. Hierarchy is also conveyed visually, through variations in scale, value, color, spacing, placement, and other signals.

Like fashion, graphic design cycles through periods of structure and chaos, ornament and austerity. A designer’s approach to visual hierarchy reflects his or her personal style, methodology, and training as well as the zeitgeist of the period. Hierarchy can be simple or complex, rigorous or loose, flat or highly articulated. Regardless of approach, hierarchy employs clear marks of separation to signal a change from one level to another. As in music, the ability to articulate variation in tone, pitch, and melody in design requires careful delineation.
In interaction design, menus,texts, and images can be given visual order through placement and consistent styling, but the user often controls the order in which information is accessed. Unlike a linear book, interactive spaces feature multiple links ans navigation options. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) articulate the structure of a document separately from its presentation so that information can be automatically reconfigured for different output devices, from desktop computer screens to mobile phones, PDAs, kiosks, and more. A different visual hierarchy might be used in each instance.

The average computer desktop supports a complex hierarchy of icons, applications, folders, menus, images, and palettes–empowering users, as never before, to arrange, access, edit, and order vast amounts of information–all managed through a flexible hierarchy controlled and customized by the user.
As technology allows ever greater access to information, the ability of the designer to distill and make sense of the data glut gains increasing value.

Rhythm & Balance — def.
Balance is a fundamental human condition: we require physical balance to stand upright and walk; we seek balance among the many facets of our personal and professional lives; the world struggles for balance of power.

In design, balance anchors and activates elements in space. Relationships among elements on the page or screen remind us of physical relationships. Visual balance occurs when the weight of one or more things is distributed evenly or proportionately in space. Like arranging furniture in a room, we move components around until the balance of form and space feels right. Large objects are a counterpoint to smaller ones; dark objects to lighter ones.

A symmetrical design is inherently stable. Yet balance need not be static. A tightrope walker achieves balance while traversing a precarious line in space, continually shifting her weight while staying in motion.

Designers employ contrasting size, texture, value, color, and shape to offset or emphasize the weight of an object and achieve the acrobat’s dynamic sense of balance.

Rhythm is a strong, regular, repeated pattern: the beating of drums, the patter of rain, the falling of footsteps. Speech, music, and dance all employ rhythm to express form over time. Designers use rhythm to construct single images as well as to create books, magazines, and motion graphics that have duration and sequence. Designers seek rhythms that are punctuated with change and variation.

Graphic Design The New Basics – grid
Graphic Design The New Basics – hierarchy

Graphic Design The New Basics – rhythm + balance

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Text acquired from: Design Observer web log and visual archive.